Foundations provide support to the structure, transfers the loads from the structure to the soil. But the layer at which the foundation transfers the load shall have an adequate bearing capacity and suitable settlement characteristics. There are several types of foundation depending on various considerations such as-
- Total load from the superstructure.
- Soil conditions.
- Water level.
- Noise and vibrations sensitivity.
- Available resources.
- Time-frame of the project.
Broadly speaking, foundations can be classified as shallow foundations and deep foundations. Shallow footings are usually used when the bearing capacity of the surface soil is adequate to carry the loads imposed by a structure. On the other hand, deep foundations are usually used when the bearing capacity of the surface soil is not sufficient to carry the loads imposed by a structure. So, the loads have to be transferred to a deeper level where the soil layer has a higher bearing capacity.
What is Pile Foundation?
Pile foundation, a kind of deep foundation, is actually a slender column or long cylinder made of materials such as concrete or steel which are used to support the structure and transfer the load at desired depth either by end bearing or skin friction.
Pile foundations are usually used for large structures and in situations where the soil at shallow depth is not suitable to resist excessive settlement, resist uplift, etc.
When to Use Piles Foundation ?
Following are the situations when using a pile foundation system can be
- When the groundwater table is high.
- Heavy and un-uniform loads from superstructure are imposed.
- Other types of foundations are costlier or not feasible.
- When the soil at shallow depth is compressible.
- When there is the possibility of scouring, due to its location near the river bed or seashore, etc.
- If there is a canal or deep drainage systems near the structure.
- When soil excavation is not possible up to the desired depth due to poor soil condition.
- When it ankara escorts impossible to keep the foundation trenches dry by pumping or by any other measure due to heavy inflow of seepage.
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Classification of Pile Foundation Based on Function or Use:
This type of pile is mostly used to provide lateral support. Usually, they resist lateral pressure from loose soil, the flow of water, etc. They are usually used for cofferdams, trench sheeting, shore protection, etc. Besides, they are not used for providing vertical support to the structure. They are usually used to serve the following purpose-
- Construction of retaining walls.
- Protection from river bank erosion.
- Retain the loose soil around foundation trenches.
- For isolation of foundation from adjacent soils.
- For confinement of soil and thus increase the bearing capacity of the soil.
Load Bearing Piles
This type of pile foundation is mainly used to transfer the vertical loads from the structure to the soil. These foundations transmit loads through the soil with poor supporting property onto a layer which is capable of bearing the load. Depending on the mechanism of load transfer from pile to the soil, load-bearing piles can be further classified as flowed.
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End Bearing Piles
In this type of pile, the loads pass through the lower tip of the pile. The bottom end of the pile rests on a strong layer of soil or rock. Usually, the pile rests at a transition layer of a weak and strong slayer. As a result, the pile acts as a column and safely transfers the load to the strong layer.
The total capacity of end bearing pile can be calculated by multiplying the area of the tip of the pile and the bearing capacity of at that particular depth of soil at which the pile rests. Considering a reasonable factor of safety, the diameter of the pile is calculated.
Friction pile transfers the load from the structure to the soil by the frictional force between the surface of the pile and the soil surrounding the pile such as stiff clay, sandy soil, etc. It can be developed for the entire length of the pile or a definite length of the pile, depending on the strata of the soil. In friction pile, generally, the entire surface of the pile works to transfer the loads from the structure to the soil.
The surface area of the pile multiplied by the safe friction force developed per unit area determines the capacity of the pile.
While designing skin friction pile, the skin friction to be developed at a pile surface adana escort be sincerely evaluated and a reasonable factor of safety adana escort be considered. Besides this one can increase the pile diameter, depth, number of piles and make pile surface rough to increase the capacity of friction pile.
Soil Compactor Piles
Sometimes piles are driven at placed closed intervals to increase the bearing capacity of soil by compacting.
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